Koegel, R.L. (2007). Social Development in Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities. Vol. 32, No 2. 140-141.
Training Paraprofesionals to Facilitate Social Interaction Between Children with Autism and Their Typical Peers in a Full Inclusive Educational Setting
Authors: Robert L. Koegel, Suzanne Robinson, & Lynn K. Koegel (dissertation)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of training paraprofessionals via modeling and in-vivo feedback to facilitate social interactions between children with autism and their typical peers. Specifically, paraprofessionals were taught to incorporate PRT (e.g., child choice, shared control, natural and contingent reinforcers) and peer-mediation strategies (e.g., peer-delivered antecedents and consequences) within the natural routines of the classroom. Results show that (a) the paraprofessionals were successfully trained to elicit social responses, and (b) social verbalizations of the children with autism and their peers immediately increased and maintained at follow-up. The results are discussed in terms of understanding and improving the training model for the purposes of increasing the social interactions of children with autism.
Using a Self-Management Packet to Increase Conversational Skills and Social Fluidity in Teenagers with Asperger's
Authors: Robert L. Koegel, Jane L. Talebi, & Lynn Kern Koegel (in progress)
Abstract: The current study investigates the effects of a self management intervention for social conversation on three teenagers diagnosed with Asperger's. Specifically, the study seeks to discover the effectiveness of a self-management package individually designed for each participant targeting various conversational and/or social skills. Prior to intervention, the participants respectively demonstrated low levels of question-asking and initiating, high levels of perseveration on preferred topics, and difficulty in perceiving when conversational partners had lost interest in their topic. Initial data indicate that implementation of this intervention does significantly increase the participants' ability to initiate with others by asking questions, edit their preferred topics to appropriate lengths for conversation, and appropriately notice other's nonverbal pragmatics and change the conversation topic accordingly.
Reducing Ritualistic Behavior in Children with Autism Using a Transfer Stimulus
Authors: Robert L. Koegel, Jane Talebi, & Lynn Kern Koegel (in progress)
Abstract: The current study investigates the effects of a transfer stimulus on ritualistic behavior in three children with autism. Specifically, the study seeks to discover whether a counting intervention used in conjunction with a competing reinforcer can effectively facilitate a child's transition away from the object of ritualistic interest to another object. Prior to intervention, all three children demonstrated high levels of interest towards the preferred stimulus and little interest in other objects. In addition, all three children showed high levels of disruptive behavior upon leaving the favored object. Initial data indicate that implementation of this intervention does significantly increase a child's ability to transition calmly away from the preferred object to another stimulus. Initial data also show that the effects of the intervention may generalize to other ritualistic behaviors in the child's routine.
Targeting Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behaviors by Increasing Flexibility in Children with Autism and Asperger’s Disorder
Authors: Robert Koegel, Ph.D.,Christie Enjey Lin, Lynn K. Koegel, Ph.D. (in progress)
Abstract: The category of restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behaviors (RIRB) is one of the core diagnostic features of Autism and Asperger’s Disorder. These symptoms have been described as a heterogeneous group of behaviors that are ritualistic, invariant and developmentally/socially inappropriate. Despite the variety of RIRB observed across individuals with autism, there appears to be a common underlying thread of inflexibility. RIRB is a significant concern because of the pervasiveness of these symptoms, coinciding disruptive behaviors and research demonstrating less improvement in this area compared to social and communication domains. RIRB has implications for the quality of life of the individual and family. Research indicates that self-management is an effective behavioral intervention to target improvement in a variety of behaviors. This study investigated the implementation of a self-management program to target RIRB by increasing “flexibility.” For this study, flexibility was defined as appropriately varying or adapting behaviors when presented with an opportunity to disengage from a RIRB without displaying disruptive behaviors and continuing to engage in the activity at hand. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants research design was implemented. Results demonstrated that self-management increased flexibility and was generalized to a variety of settings and activities.